Vulvar Reconstruction | Vulvar Biopsy Steps

Summary: Vulvar reconstruction is a surgical procedure that aims to repair and rebuild the external female genitals. This procedure is usually done after cancer treatments or trauma have damaged the vulva. Vulvar reconstruction can bring physical and psychological benefits to women who have undergone these experiences.

1. Why Is Vulvar Reconstruction Needed?

Vulvar reconstruction is necessary when the external female genitalia are damaged. This damage can happen due to cancer treatments like radiation therapy or surgery, which can cause scarring, tissue loss, and other complications. Vaginal atrophy and cosmetic concerns are other reasons that women may choose to undergo vulvar reconstruction. These issues can cause discomfort, pain, and affect a woman’s self-esteem and sexuality.

Vulvar reconstruction aims to restore and improve external genital function and appearance. The surgery can help to reconstruct the labia, clitoral hood, and vaginal opening. The benefits of vulvar reconstruction can range from enhancing sensation and sexual function to improving body image and quality of life.

The surgery involves techniques such as skin grafting and flap reconstruction, which use tissue from other parts of the body to rebuild the vulva. The surgery is often performed by gynecologic oncologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists who specialize in pelvic floor diseases.

2. How Is The Surgery Performed?

The vulvar reconstruction surgery is done in a hospital setting, and general anesthesia is usually required. The surgeon will make incisions along the lines of the natural creases of the genital area to minimize visible scarring. Skin flaps from other parts of the body can then be used to reconstruct the vulva.

In some cases, the surgeon may use a skin graft taken from the patient’s own thigh or lower abdomen. The graft is then applied to the affected area and left to heal. Once the graft is healed, it can be sculpted and shaped to look like natural genital tissue.

Before the surgery, the patient will undergo a thorough medical evaluation to assess their general health and ability to tolerate the procedure. Recovery time varies depending on the extent of the reconstruction, but most women can return to work and normal activities after six weeks.

3. What Are The Risks Involved?

Like any surgery, vulvar reconstruction comes with risks and potential complications. Bleeding, infection, and blood clots are common risks associated with this type of surgery. Some women may experience complications with wound healing or have issues with urinary retention. Sexual function can be impacted, as the reconstruction may reduce sensation and affect the ability to achieve orgasm.

In rare cases, women who undergo vulvar reconstruction may experience nerve damage, chronic pain, or require follow-up surgeries for revisions. These risks are typically outweighed by the physical and psychological benefits of the procedure, particularly for women who have undergone cancer treatments.

It’s essential that women considering vulvar reconstruction discuss any concerns and potential risks with their surgeon before undergoing the surgery. A detailed consultation is usually done to ensure patients understand the procedure, potential complications, and expected outcomes.

4. How Can Women Prepare For Vulvar Reconstruction?

Women should have realistic expectations about the results of vulvar reconstruction. The surgery can improve genital appearance and function but cannot guarantee perfection. Scarring is typical after surgery, but its visibility can be minimized through proper wound care and healing techniques. It’s also important to understand that sexual function may be impacted, and some patients may require further counseling or therapy to cope with these changes.

Prior to the surgery, women should avoid smoking, drinking, and taking medications that can increase bleeding, such as aspirin or ibuprofen. They should follow their surgeon’s instructions carefully, especially regarding postoperative care and activity restrictions. Women should have a good support system in place for the recovery process.

Overall, it’s essential that women feel comfortable discussing their concerns and questions with their doctors before making decisions about vulvar reconstruction.

5. What Are The Benefits Of Vulvar Reconstruction?

Vulvar reconstruction can bring many benefits to women who have undergone cancer treatments or other trauma to the genital area. These benefits can include improved quality of life, reduced pain and discomfort, body image improvement, and enhanced sexual function. Women who undergo vulvar reconstruction may feel more confident and empowered after the surgery, as they regain control over their bodies and sexual health.

The surgery can also improve urinary and bowel function in some women and reduce problems related to vaginal atrophy and dryness. Women who have experienced cancer or other traumatic events can feel a sense of closure and healing with vulvar reconstruction.

Women who are considering vulvar reconstruction should consult with their doctors to learn more about the potential physical and psychological benefits of the procedure.


Vulvar reconstruction is a complex surgery that aims to restore function and appearance to the female genitalia. The surgery can be helpful for women who have undergone cancer treatment or experienced other damage to the vulva. While the surgery comes with risks and potential complications, the benefits can range from improved body image and sexual function to reduced pain and discomfort. Women considering vulvar reconstruction should consult with an experienced doctor and discuss their options and expectations carefully before undergoing the procedure.

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